Description of Rajgir
The city Kushagara-pura (Rajgir)
From this spot proceeding eastward through the mountains about 60 li, we arrive at the city Kushagara-pura
(Kiu-she-kie-lo-pu-lo), or "the royal city of best grass (lucky grass)." This is the central point of the kingdom of Magadha. Here the former kings of the country fixed their capital. It produces much of the most excellent, scented, fortunate grass, and therefore it is called "the city of the superior grass." High mountains surround it on each side, and form as it were its external walls. 38 On the west it is approached through a narrow pass, on the north there is a passage through the mountains. The town is extended from east to west and narrow from north to south. It is about 1 50 li in circuit. The remaining foundations of the wall of the inner city are about 30 li in circuit. The trees called Kie-ni-kia (Kanakas) border all the roads, their flowers exhale a delicious perfume, and their colour is of a bright golden hue. In the spring months the forests are all of a golden colour.
Outside the north gate of the palace city is a stupa. Here Devadatta (Ti-p'o-to-lo) and Ajatashatru-raja Wi-sing-yun), having agreed together as friends, liberated the drunken elephant for the purpose of killing Tathagata. But Tathagata miraculously caused five lions to proceed from his finger-ends; on this the drunken elephant was subdued and stood still before him.
The stupa where Ashvajit preached Sariputra
To the north-east of this spot is a stupa. This is where Sariputra (She-li-tseu) heard Asvajita ('0-shi-p'o-shi) the Bhikshu declare the law, and by that means reached the fruit (of an Arhat).
At first Sariputra was a layman; he was a man of distinguished ability and refinement, and was highly esteemed by those of his own time. At this time, with other students, he accepted the traditional teaching as delivered to him. On one occasion, being about to enter the great city of Rajagriha, the Bhikshu Asvajita (Ma-shing) was also just going his round of begging. Then Sariputra, seeing him at a distance, addressed his disciples, saying,
"Yonder man who comes, so full of dignity and nobleness, if he has not reached the fruit of sanctity (Arhatship), how is he thus composed and quiet? Let us stop awhile and observe him as he approaches." Now as Ashvajita Bhikshu had reached the condition of an Arhat, his mind was self-possessed, his face composed and of an agreeable refinement; thus, holding his religious staff, he came along with a dignified air. Then Sariputra said,
"Venerable sir! are you at ease and happy ? Pray, who is your master, and what the system you profess, that you are so gladsome and contented? "
Ashvajita answering him said,
"Know you not the royal prince, the son of Suddhodana-raja, who gave up the condition of a Chakravarttin monarch, and from pity to the six kinds of creatures for six years, endured penance and reached the condition of Samaddhi, the state of perfect omniscience? This is my master! As to his law, it has respect to a condition including the absence of existence, without nonentity; it is difficult to define; only Buddhas with Buddhas can fathom it; how much less can foolish and blind mortals, such as I, explain its principles. But for your sake I will recite a stanza in praise of the law of Buddha." Sariputra having heard it obtained forthwith the fruit of Arhatship
A fiery ditch of Srigupta and a stupa
To the north of this place, not far off, there is a very deep ditch, by the side of which is built a stupa; this is the spot where Srigupta (She-li-kio-to) wished to destroy Buddha by means of fire concealed in the ditch and poisoned rice. Now Srigupta (Shing-mi) greatly honoured (believed in) the heretics and his mind was deeply possessed by false views. All the Brahmacharins said,
"The men of the country greatly honour Gautama (Kiao-ta-mo), and in consequence he causes our disciples to be without support. Invite him then to your house to eat, and before the door make a great ditch and fill it with fire, and cover it over slightly with wooden planks to conceal the fire ; moreover, poison the food, so that if he escape the fire (fiery ditch), he will take the poison."
Srigupta, according to his directions, caused the poison to be prepared, and then all the people in the town, knowing the evil and destructive design of Srigupta against the Lord of the World, entreated Buddha not to go to the house. The Lord said,
"Be not distressed; the body of Tathagata cannot be hurt by such means as these."
He therefore accepted the invitation and went. When his foot trod on the threshold of the door the fire in the pit became a tank of pure water with lotus flowers on its surface.
Srigupta having witnessed this, being filled with shame and fear lest his project should fail, said to his followers,
"He has by his magical power escaped the fire; but there is yet the poisoned food! "
The Lord having eaten the rice, began to declare the excellent law, on which Srigupta, having attended to it, himself became a disciple.
A preaching-hall for Buddha made by Jivaka
To the north-east of this fiery ditch of Srigupta (Shing-mi), at a bend of the city, is a stupa; this is where Jivaka (Shi-fo-kia), the great physician, built a preaching-hall for Buddha. All round the walls he planted flowers and fruit trees. The traces of the foundation-walls and the decayed roots of the trees are still visible. Tathagata, when he was in the world, often stopped here. By the side of this place are the remains of the house of Jivaka, and the hollow of an old well also exists there still.
The mountain Gridhrakuta
To the north-east of the palace city going 14 or 15 li, we come to the mountain Gridhrakuta (Ki-li-tho-kiu- ch'a). Touching the southern slope of the northern mountain, it rises as a solitary peak to a great height, on which vultures make their abode. It appears like a high tower on which the azure tints of the sky are reflected, the colours of the mountain and the heaven being commingled.
When Tathagata had guided the world for some fifty years, he dwelt much in this mountain, and delivered the excellent law in its developed form (kwang) Bimbisara-raja, for the purpose of hearing the law, raised a number of men to accompany him from the foot of the mountain to its summit. They levelled the valleys and spanned the precipices, and with the stones made a staircase about ten paces wide and 5 or 6 li long.
Two small stupas
In the middle of the road there are two small stupas, one called "Dismounting from the chariot" (Hia-shing), because the king, when he got here, went forward on foot. The other is called "Sending back the crowd" (T'ui-fan), because the king, separating the common folk, would not allow them to proceed with him.
A brick vihara, the convent
The summit of this mountain is long from the east to the west and narrow from north to south. There is a brick vihara on the borders of a steep precipice at the western end of the mountain. It is high and wide and beautifully constructed. The door opens to the east. Here Tathagata often stopped in old days and preached the law. There is now a figure of him preaching the law of the same size as life.
A long stone
To the east of the vihara is a long stone, on which Tathagata trod as he walked up and down for exercise.
A great stone
By the side of it is a great stone about fourteen or fifteen feet high and thirty paces round. This is the place where Devadatta flung a stone from a distance to strike Buddha.
Buddha delivered Saddharma Pundarika Sutra
South of this, below the precipice, is a stupa. Here Tathagata, when alive in old time, delivered the Sad-dharma Pundarika Sutra.
A great stone house
To the south of the vihara, by the side of a mountain cliff is a great stone house. In this Tathagata, when dwelling in the world long ago, entered Samadhi.
A great and extraordinary stone
To the north-west of the stone house and in front of it is a great and extraordinary stone. This is the place where Ananda (0-nan) was frightened by Mara. When the venerable Ananda had entered Samadhi in this place, Mara-raja, assuming the form of a vulture, in the middle of the night, during the dark portion of the month, took his place on this rock, and flapping his wings and uttering loud screams, tried to frighten the venerable one. Ananda, filled with fear, was at a loss to know what to do; then Tathagata, by his spiritual power, seeing his state, stretched out his hand to compose him. He pierced the stone wall and patted the head of Ananda, and with his words of great love he spoke to him thus :
"You need not fear the assumed form which Mara has taken."
Ananda in consequence recovered his composure, and remained with his heart and body at rest and in peace.
Although years and months have elapsed since then, yet the bird traces on the stone and the hole in the rock still remain visible.
Several stone houses
By the side of the vihara there are several stone houses, where Sariputra and other great Arhats entered Samadhi. In front of the stone house of Sariputra is a great well, dry and waterless. The hollow (shaft) still remains.
A large and flat stone
To the north-east of the vihara, in the middle of a rocky stream, is a large and flat stone. Here Tathagata dried his Kashaya garment. The traces of the tissue of the robe still remain, as though they were cut out on the rock.
A foot-trace of Buddha
By the side of this, and upon a rock, is a foot-trace of Buddha. Although the "wheel" outline is somewhat obscure, yet it can be distinctly traced.
On the top of the northern mountain is a stupa. From this point Tathagata beheld the town of Magadha, and for seven days explained the law.
The streams on Vipula hill
To the west of the north gate of the mountain city is the mountain called Pi-pu-lo (Vipula-giri). According to the common report of the country it is said, "On the northern side of the south-western crags of this mountain there were formerly five hundred warm springs; now there are only some ten or so; but some of these are warm and others cold, but none of them hot."These springs have their origin to the south of the Snowy Mountains from the Anavatapta (Wu-jeh-no-c'hi) lake, and flowing underground, burst forth here. The water is very sweet and pure, and the taste is like that of the water of the lake. The streams (from the lake) are five hundred in number (branches), and as they pass by the lesser underground fire-abodes (hells), the power of the flames ascending causes the water to be hot. At the mouths of the various hot springs there are placed carved stones, sometimes shaped like lions, and at other times as the heads of white elephants; sometimes stone conduits are constructed, through which the water flows on high (aqueducts), whilst below there are stone basins, in which the water collects like a pond. Here people of every region come, and from every city, to bathe; those who suffer from any disease are often cured.
Many stupas and the remains of viharas
On the right and left of the warm springs are many stupas and the remains of viharas close together. In all these places the four past Buddhas have sat and walked, and the traces of their so doing are still left. These spots being surrounded by mountains and supplied with water, men of conspicuous virtue and wisdom take up their abode here, and there are many hermits who live here also in peace and solitude.
The Pippala stone house
To the west of the hot springs is the Pip pal a (Pi- po-lo) stone house. When the Lord of the World was alive in olden times, he constantly dwelt here. The deep cavern which is behind the walls of this house is the palace abode of an Asura (or, the Asuras). Many Bhikshus who practise Samadhi dwell here. Often we may see strange forms, as of Nagas, serpents, and lions, come forth from it. Those who see these things lose their reason and become dazed. Nevertheless, this wonderful place (excellent land) is one in which holy saints dwell, and occupying the spot consecrated by such sacred traces; they forget the calamities and evils that threaten them.
Not long ago there was a Bhikshu of a pure and up- right life, whose mind was enamoured of solitude and quiet; he desired to practise Samadhi concealed in this house. Someone protested and said,
"Go not there! Many calamities happen there, and strange things causing death are frequent. It is difficult to practise Samadhi in, such a spot, and there is constant fear of death. You ought to remember what has happened before time, if you would not reap the fruits of after-repentance."
The Bhikshu said, "Not so! My determination is to seek the fruit of Buddha and to conquer the Deva Mara. If these are the dangers of which you speak, what need to name them?"
Then he took his pilgrim's staff and proceeded to the house. There he reared an altar and began to recite his magic protective sentences. After the tenth day, a maiden came forth from the cave and addressed the Bhikshu, saying,
"Sir of the coloured robes! you observe the precepts, and, with full purpose, you adopt the refuge (found in Buddha); you aspire after ( prepare) wisdom, and practise Samadhi, and to promote in yourself spiritual power, so that you may be an illustrious guide of men, you dwell here and alarm me and my fellows ! But how is this in agreement with the doctrine of Tathagata?"
The Bhikshu said, "I practise a pure life, following the holy teaching (of Buddha). I conceal myself among the mountains and dells to avoid the tumult of life. In suddenly bringing a charge against me, I ask where is my fault?"
She replied, "Your reverence! when you recite your prayers, the sound causes fire to burst into (my house} from without, and burns my abode ; it afflicts me and my family ! pray you, pity us, and do not say your charmed prayers anymore ! "
The Bhikshu said, "I repeat my prayers to defend myself, and not to hurt any living thing. In former days, a religious person (a disciple) occupied this place and practised Samadhi with a view to obtain the holy fruit and to help the miserable; then with unearthly sights he was frightened to death and gave up his life. This was your doing. What have you to say? "
She replied, "Oppressed with a weight of guilt, my wisdom is small indeed; but from this time forth I will bar my house and keep the partition (between it and this chamber). Do you, venerable one, on your part, I pray, repeat no more spiritual formulae?"
On this the Bhikshu prepared himself in Samddhi, and from that time rested in quiet, none hurting him.
A stupa of heretics
On the top of Mount Vipula (Pi-pu-lo) is a stupa. This is where in old times Tathagata repeated the law. At the present time naked heretics (Nirgranthas) frequent this place in great numbers; they practise penance night and day without intermission and from morn till night walk round (the stupa) and contemplate it with respect.
Devadatta’s stone house
To the left of the northern gate of the mountain city (Girivjaja, Shan-shing), going east, on the north side of the southern crag (precipice or cliff), going 2 or 3 li, we come to a great stone house in which Devadatta formerly entered Samadhi.
A flat stone with coloured spots and a stupa
Not far to the east of this stone house, on the top of a flat stone, there are coloured spots like blood. By the side of this rock a stupa has been built. This is the place where a Bhikshu practising Samadhi wounded himself and obtained the fruit of holiness.
There was formerly a Bhikshu who diligently exerted himself in mind and body, and secluded himself in the practice of Samddhi. Years and months elapsed, and he had not obtained the holy fruit. Retiring from the spot, he upbraided himself, and then he added with a sigh,
"I despair of obtaining the fruit of Arhatship (freedom from learning). What use to keep this body, the source of impediment from its very character?"
Having spoken thus, he mounted on this stone and gashed his throat. Forth with he reached the fruit of an Arhat, and ascended into the air and exhibited spiritual changes; finally, his body was consumed by fire, and he reached Nirvana. Because of his noble resolution they have built (this stupa) as a memorial.
A stone stupa
To the east of this place, above a rocky crag, there is a stone stupa. This is the place where a Bhikshu practising Samadhi threw himself down and obtained the fruit. Formerly, when Buddha was alive, there was a Bhikshu who sat quietly in a mountain wild, practising the mode of Samadhi leading to Arhatship. For a long time he had exercised the utmost zeal without result. Night and day he restrained his thoughts, nor ever gave up his quiet-composure. Tathagata, knowing that his senses were fit for the acquirement (of emancipation), went to the place for the purpose of converting him (perfecting him). In a moment he transported himself from the garden of bamboos (Venuvana) to this mountain-side, and there calling him, stood standing awaiting him.
At this time the Bhikshu, seeing from a distance the holy congregation, his heart and body ravished with joy, he cast himself down from the mountain. But by his purity of heart and respectful faith for Buddha's teaching before he reached the ground he gained the fruit of Arhatship. The Lord of the World then spoke and said,
"You ought to know the opportunity."
Immediately he ascended into the air and exhibited spiritual transformation. To show his pure faith they have raised this memorial.
Karanda-venuvana and brick walls of a vihara
Going about one li from the north gate of the mountain city we come to the Karandavenuvana (Kia-lan-t'o- chuh-yuen), where now the stone foundation and the brick walls of a vihara exist. The door faces the east. Tathagata, when in the world, frequently dwelt here, and preached the law for the guidance and conversion of men and to rescue the people. They have now made a figure of Tathagata the size of life.
In early days there was in this town a great householder (grihapati) called Karanda; at this time he had gained much renown by giving to the heretics a large bamboo garden. Then coming to see Tathagata and hearing his law, he was animated by a true faith. He then regretted that the multitude of unbelievers should dwell in that place. "And now," he said, "the leader of gods and men has no place in which to lodge."
Then the spirits and demons, affected by his faithfulness, drove away the heretics, and addressing them said, "Karanda, the householder, is going to erect a vihara here for the Buddha; you must get away quickly, lest calamity befall you!" "
The heretics, with hatred in their heart and mortified in spirit, went away ; thereupon the householder built this viadra. When it was finished he went himself to invite Buddha. Thereon Tathagata received the gift.
A stupa which was built by Ajatas'atru
To the east of the Karandavenuvana is a stupa which was built by Ajatas'atru-raja. After the Nirvdna of Tathagata the kings divided the relics (she-li); the king Ajatashatru returned then with his share, and from a feeling of extreme reverence built (a sttipd) and offered his religious offerings to it. When A6ka-raja (Wu-yau) became a believer, he opened it and took the relics, and in his turn built another sttipa. This building constantly emits miraculous light.
A stupa which encloses the relics of half of the body of Ananda.
By the side of the stupa of Ajatashatru-raja is another stupa which encloses the relics of half of the body of
Ananda. Formerly, when the saint was about to reach Nirvana, he left the country of Magadha and proceeded to the town of Vaishali (Fei- she-li). As these two countries disputed (about him) and began to raise troops, the venerable one, from pity, divided his body into two parts. The king of Magadha, receiving his share, returned and offered to it his religious homage, and immediately prepared in this renowned land, with great honour, to raise a stupa. By the side of this building is a place where Buddha walked up and down.
A stupa where Sariputra and Mudgalaputra were spent the rainy season
Not far from this is a stupa. This is the place where Sariputra and Mudgalaputra dwelt during the rainy season.
A large stone house.
To the south-west of the bamboo garden (Venuvana) about 5 or 6 li, on the north side of the southern mountain, is a great bamboo forest. In the middle of it is a large stone house. Here the venerable Kashyapa with 999 great Arhats, after Tathagata's Nirvana, called a convocation (for the purpose of settling} the three Pitakas.
The old foundation-wall made by King Ajatashatru
Before it is the old foundation-wall. King Ajatashatru made this hall 60 for the sake of accommodating the great Arhats who assembled to settle the Dharma-pitaka.
At first, when Maha Kashyapa was seated in silent (study) in the desert (mountain forests}, suddenly a bright light burst forth, and he perceived the earth shaking. Then he said,
"What fortunate change of events is there, that this miracle should occur?"
Then exerting his divine sight, he saw the Lord Buddha between the two trees entering Nirvana. Forthwith he ordered his followers to accompany him to the city of Kushinagara (Ku-shi). On the way they met a Brahman holding in his hands a divine flower. Kashyapa, addressing him, said,
"Whence come you? Know you where our great teacher is at present? "
The Brahman replied and said
"I have but just come from yonder city of Kushinagara, where I saw your great master just entered into Nirvana. A vast multitude of heavenly beings were around him offering their gifts in worship, and this flower, which I hold, I brought thence."
Kashyapa having heard these words said to his followers, "The sun of wisdom has quenched his rays. The world is now in darkness. The illustrious guide has left us and gone, and all flesh must fall into calamity."
Then the careless Bhikshus said one to another with satisfaction, "Tathagata has gone to rest. This is good for us, for now, if we transgress, who is there to reprove or restrain us? "
Then Kashyapa, having heard this, was deeply moved and afflicted, and he resolved to assemble (colled) the
treasure of the law (Dharma-pitaka) and bring to punishment the transgressors. Accordingly he proceeded to the two trees, and regarding Buddha, he offered worship.
And now the King of the Law having gone from the world, both men and Devas were left without a guide, and the great Arhats, moreover, were cleaving to (the idea of their} Nirvana. Then the great Kas'yapa reflected thus : " To secure obedience to the teaching of Buddha, we ought to collect the Dharma-pitaka" On this he ascended Mount Sumeru and sounded the great gong (ghanta), and spake thus : "Now then, in the town of Bajagrlha there is going to be a religious assembly. Let all those who have obtained the fruit (of arhatship) hasten to the spot."
In connection with the sounding of the gong the direction of Kashyapa spread far and wide through the great
chiliocosm, and all those possessed of spiritual capabilities, hearing the instructions, assembled in convocation. At this time Kashyapa addressed the assembly and said,
"Tathagata having died (attained to extinction or Nirvana) the world is empty. We ought to collect the Dharma- pitaka, in token of our gratitude to Buddha. Now then, being about to accomplish this, there should be profound composure (quiet). How can this be done in the midst of such a vast multitude? Those who have acquired the three species of knowledge (trimaya), who have obtained the six supernatural faculties (shadabhijnas), who have kept the law without failure, whose powers of discrimination (dialectic) are clear, such superior persons as these may stop and form the assembly. Those who are learners with only limited fruit, let such depart to their homes."
On this 999 men were left; but he excluded An and a, as being yet a learner. Then the great Kashyapa, calling him, addressed him thus:
"You are not yet free from defects; you must leave the holy assembly."
He replied, "During many years I have followed Tathagata as his attendant; every assembly that has been held for consider-ing the law, I have joined; but now, as you are going to hold an assembly after his death (wai), I find myself excluded; the King of the Law having died, I have lost my dependence and helper."
"Do not cherish your sorrow! You were a personal attendant on Buddha indeed, and you therefore heard much, and so you loved (much'), and therefore you are not free from all the ties that bind (the soul or affections)"
Ananda, with words of submission, retired and came to a desert place, desiring to reach a condition "beyond, learning;" he strove for this without intermission, but with no result. At length, wearied out, he desired one day to lie down. Scarcely had his head reached the pillow when lo! he obtained he condition of an Arhat. He then went to the assembly, and knocking at the door, announced his arrival. Kashyapa then asked him, saying,
"Have you got rid of all ties? In that case exercise your spiritual power and enter without the door being opened!"
Ananda, in compliance with the order, entered through the keyhole, 63 and having paid reverence to the priesthood, retired and sat down.
At this time fifteen days of the summer rest ( Varshavasana) had elapsed. On this Kasyapa rising, said,
"Consider well and listen! Let Ananda, who ever heard the words of Tathagata, collect by singing through the Sutra-pitaka. Let Up all (Yeu-po-li), who clearly understands the rules of discipline ( Vinaya), and is well known to all who know, collect the Vinaya-pitaka ; and I, Kashyapa, will collect the Abhidharma-pitaka." The three months of rain 65 being past, the collection of the Tripitaka was finished. As the great Kasyapa was the president (Sthavira) among the priests, it is called the Sthavira (Chang-tso-pu) convocation.
Kasyapa's convocation stupa
North-west of the place where the great Kasyapa held the convocation is a stupa. This is where Auanda, being forbidden by the priests to take part in the assembly, came and sat down in silence and reached the fruit (position) of an Arhat. After this he joined the assembly.
A stupa built by Ashoka-Raja.
Going west from this point 20 li or so, is a stupa built by Ashoka-Raja. This is the spot where the "great assembly" (Malidsahgha) formed their collection of books (or, held their assembly). Those who had not been permitted to join Kashyapa's assembly, whether learners or those above learning (Arhats), to the number of 100,000 men, came together to this spot and said,
"Whilst Tathagata was alive we all had a common master, but now the King of the Law is dead it is different. We too wish to show our gratitude to Buddha, and we also will hold an assembly for collecting the scriptures."
On this the common folk with the holy disciples came to the assembly (all assembled), the foolish and wise alike flocked together and collected the Sutra-pitaka, the Vinaya-pitaka, the Abhidharma-pitaka, the miscellaneous Pitaka (Khuddaka-nikaya}, and the Dkdrani-pital. Thus they distinguished five PitalMS. And because in this assembly both common folk and holy personages were mixed together, it was called "the assembly of the great congregation" (Mahdsangha).
Karanda lake (Karanda-hrada).
To the north of the Venuvana Vihara about 200 paces we come to the Karanda lake (Karanda-hrada). When
Tathagata was in the world he preached often here. The water was pure and clear, and possessed of the eight
qualities. After the Nirvana of Buddha it dried up and disappeared.
A stupa and a pillar built by Ashoka-raja
To the north-west of the Karandahrada, at a distance of 2 or 3 li, is a stupa, which was built by Ashoka-raja
It is about 60 feet high; by the side of it is a stone pillar on which is a record engraved relating to the foundation of the stdpa. It is about 50 feet high, and on the top has the figure of an elephant.
To the north-east of the stone pillar, not far, we come to the town of Rajagrlha (Ho-lo-shi-ki-li-hi). The outer walls of this city have been destroyed, and there are no remnants of them left; the inner city (walls)? 1 although in a ruined state, still has some elevation from the ground, and are about 20 li in circuit. In the first case, Bimbisara-raja established his residence in Kushagara; in this place the houses of the people, being close together, were frequently burned with fire and destroyed. When one house was in flames, it was impossible to prevent the whole neighbourhood sharing in the calamity, and consequently the whole was burned up. Then the people made loud complaints, and were unable to rest quietly in their dwellings. The king said,
"By my demerit the lower people are afflicted; what deed of goodness (meritorious virtue) can I do in order to be exempt from such calamities?"
His ministers said, "Maharaja, your virtuous government spreads peace and harmony, your righteous rule causes light and progress. It is by want of due attention on the part of the people that these calamities of fire occur. It is necessary to make a severe law to prevent such occurrences hereafter. If a fire breaks out, the origin must be diligently sought for, and to punish the principal guilty person, let him be driven into the cold forest.
Now this cold forest (sitavana) is the place of corpses abandoned (cast out} there. Every one esteems it an unlucky place, and the people of the land avoid going there and passing through it. Let him be banished there as a cast-out corpse. From dread of this fate, the people will become careful and guard (against the outbreak of fire)."
The king said, "It is well; let this announcement be made, and let the people attend to it."
And now it happened that the king's palace was the first to be burned with fire. Then he said to his minis-ters, "I myself must be banished;" and he gave up the government to his eldest son in his own place. "I wish to maintain the laws of the country (he said) ; I therefore myself am going into exile."
At this time the king of Vaishali hearing that Bimbisara-raja was dwelling alone in the "cold forest," raised an army and put it in movement to invade (make a foray) when nothing was ready (to resist him). The lords of the marches (frontiers), hearing of it, built a town, and as the king was the first to inhabit it, it was called "the royal city" (Rajagriha). Then the ministers and the people all flocked there with their families.
It is also said that Ajatashatru-raja first founded this. That is, as it seems, in the had been before used as a burial-place where the king was living, place for the people of the "old From this it would appear that the town." site of the new town of Rajagriha, city, and the heir-apparent of Ajatashatru having come to the throne, he also appointed it to be the capital, and so it continued till the time of Asoka-raja, who changed the capital to Pataliputra, and gave the city of Raja-griha to the Brahmans, so that now in the city there are no common folk to be seen, but only Brahmans to the number of a thousand families.
Two small sangharamas, Jyotishka’s birth-place
At the south-west angle of the royal precincts are two small sangharamas; the priests who come and go, and are strangers in the place, lodge here. Here also Buddha, when alive, delivered the law (preached). North- west from this is a stupa; this is the site of an old village where the householder Jyotishka (Ch'u-ti-se-kia) was born.
Outside the south gate of the city, on the left of the road, is a stupa. Here Tathagata preached and converted Rahula (Lo-hu-lo).